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阅读理解解题技巧之[词义猜测]

适用年段:高三
试卷类型:单元测试
试卷大小:M
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更新日期:2018-04-29

阅读理解解题技巧之[词义猜测]

 

一、猜测词义设题方式

1.(2015 江苏卷)“What does the underlined word “tyrannies” in Paragraph 2 refer to?“____________________.”

2. .(2011辽宁卷)“address” means “_____________________.”

3. (2017·全国卷Ⅱ·D·节选)“the tables are turned” means __________________.

4. (2017·全国卷Ⅰ·D·节选)What does the underlined phrase “the water catcher” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

 

二、猜测词义解题方法

例析与探究

【例】The modern age of medicine began with the stethoscope, an instrument for listening to a patient’s heartbeat and breathing.

【析】同位语部分意思是,stethoscope是用来___________

____________的仪器,也即__________。

【悟】由生词后的_______(从句)或定语从句可猜词义,也就是_____猜词法。常见信息词__________

 

Ex. 1

    ◎A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter.

    ◎His uncle is a zoologist, an expert who does research on animals.

    ◎We are on the night shift --- from midnight to 8 a.m. --- this week.

 

【例】 Andrew is one of the most supercilious men I knew. His brother in contrast, is quite modest.

【析】in contrast表示_____,supercilious与modest意义相对应,可猜出supercilious意为__________________。

【悟】根据对比关系猜测词义。句中有_______________ 

___________________________________________等表转折的词时,前后句含有对比意义,据此可猜测生词词义。

 

Ex.2

1. Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby.

2. John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things, his wife, however, is very thrifty.

【例】 Tom is considered an autocratic leader because he makes decisions without seeking the opinions of others.

【析】 because是信息词,因为他做决定从来不征询别人的意见。这样可知autocratic意思应该为“______________”。

【悟】根据______关系猜测词义。表示_____关系的信息词有:___________________________________等。

 

Ex. 3

    ◎Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica. An inexperienced eye could not tell the difference.

    ◎He’s such a shrewd businessman that he loses no money in any trade.

 

【例】 His secret for a living and healthy life has been well publicized—no alcohol, no cigarette and no anger.

【析】由a living and healthy life以及同类名词cigarette可推知,alcohol意为_________。

【悟】根据________关系猜测词义。表______关系的信息词有and, or, namely, that is to say, in other words 等。

 

【例】 In our competitive world of today, examinations have a highly selecting or filtering role.

【析】句中_________ 与filtering含义相近,由________推测filtering 意为______________。

【悟】根据_______________________猜测词义。这类_______________________往往有and, or, but, however等

信息词作暗示。

 

【例】 Today young couples who are just starting their household often spend lots of their money on appliances, for instance, washing machine, fridge and color TV sets.

【析】从for instance后所举例子可知,appliances意为__________________________________________。

【悟】根据举例猜测词义。这类信息词有________                  ____等短语。

 

【例】 The pupils assembled in front of the school hall. They came together to listen to the headmaster announce the result of the sports meeting.

【析】第二句有_______________________,很明显学生们是____________学校大厅前听校长宣布运动会的成绩。

【悟】俗话说,“词不离句,句不离文”。特定的

 ________往往是推测词义不可忽视的重要因素。

Ex.4

    ◎One of symptoms caused by the illness is a high fever.

    ◎Because this chemical liquid is highly volatile, we must keep it in a bottle which has a tight cover.

    ◎In the strong wind, the beggar shivered with the terrible cold.

 

三、应用与检测【 语段练习 】

1. (2017·全国卷Ⅱ·D·节选)Some plants give off smelly chemicals to keep insects away. But others do double duty. They give off perfumes designed to attract different insects who are natural enemies to the attackers. Once they arrive,the tables are turned.The attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch.

1.What does the author mean by “the tables are turned” in Paragraph 3?

A.The attackers get attacked.

B.The insects gather under the table.

C.The plants get ready to fight back.

D.The perfumes attract natural enemies.

 

2. (2017·全国卷Ⅰ·D·节选)To construct a working still,use a sharp stick or rock to dig a hole four feet across and three feet deep. Try to make the hole in a damp area to increase the water catcher's productivity. Place your cup in the deepest part of the hole. Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up—and out—the side of the hole.

2.What does the underlined phrase “the water catcher” in Paragraph 2 refer to?

A.The tube.        B.The still.

C.The hole.              D.The cup.

 

四、应用与检测[语篇练习]

 (2017·合肥市高三第一次教学质量检测)

Many young people these days adore the advertised magazine body and become too focused on attaining this image instead of worrying more about what lasts and even grows over time.But could you imagine being considered beautiful for years,  and  suddenly  being ugly after moving to another continent? It is a sad reality that people don’t realize how vacillating the idea of beauty can be from one country to another.

Think of the most typical American girl you know.Is she blonde­haired with white skin and light blue eyes, and does she love shopping or sports? Now place this girl in the heart of Africa, where beauty is placed on what you can control.The Maasai tribe in Kenya focuses on how clean people are, and how stylish their piercings (穿孔) are.This tribe’s culture is to be a brave fighter, so they will cut their skin with patterns in it to show that they are strong.If you don’t look fierce, you are not beautiful.

Other countries like North Korea and South Korea have their own unique views on beauty.In an interview, a woman who has lived in both North Korea and South Korea claims that beauty in North Korea is based more on your ability to be a good woman and wife.She says that women in North Korea are less concerned about fashion and beauty in the physical sense.She says they did have a time when big eyes were a big deal and everyone wanted to get double eyelid surgery.This is something extreme and could perhaps be influenced by Western culture.But don’t you think the idea of getting surgery done to look more attractive is crazy?

 

1.What does the underlined word “vacillating” in Paragraph 1 probably mean?

A.Inconsistent.              B.Reasonable.

C.Unusual.                   D.Similar.

 

2.The Maasai tribe in Kenya is mentioned to show that in their eyes ________.

A.getting dirty is stylish

B.looking fierce is beautiful

C.strong people cut their skin

D.American girls love shopping

 

3.According to the woman interviewed, women in North Korea now ________.

A.care a lot about their appearance

B.put the beauty of eyes in the first place

C.pay great attention to their ability

D.are crazy about double eyelid surgery

 

4.What does the text mainly tell us?

A.Inner beauty is of great importance.

B.Ideas of beauty vary among culture groups.

C.Different ways are needed to admire true beauty.

D.Fashion magazines easily influence young people.

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